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Kitchen Tips: Bread Making

Bread Making 101

Problems That Can Arise When Baking Bread

Problem

Cause

Poor volume

too much salt
too little yeast
too little liquid
weak flour
under or over mixing
oven too hot

Too much volume

too little salt
too much yeast
too much dough in pan
over-proofed

Poor shape

too much liquid
flour too weak
improper molding
improper fermentation or proofing
too much oven steam

Split or burst crust

over-mixing
under-fermented dough
improper molding
seam not on bottom
uneven oven heat 
oven too hot or insufficient steam

Too dense

too much salt
too little liquid
too little yeast
under-fermented
under-proofed

Too coarse

too much yeast
too much liquid
incorrect mixing time
improper fermentation
over-proofed
pan too large

Poor texture or crumbly

flour too weak
too little salt
fermentation time too long or short

Crust too dark

too much sugar or milk
under-fermented
oven temperature too high
baking time too long
insufficient steam at beginning of baking

Crust too pale too little sugar or milk
over-fermented
over-proofed
oven temperature too low
baking time too short
too much steam in oven
Crust too thick too little sugar or fat
improper fermentation
baked too long or wrong temperature
too little steam
Blisters on crust too much liquid
improper fermentation
improper shaping of loaf
Flat taste too little salt
Poor flavor inferior, spoiled or rancid ingredients
under or over-fermented